The notion of «allergy» proposed in 1906 by Pirke to characterize the changes of reactivity of the organism, guided by a number of observations from the field of experimental immunology, and clinical pathology.
Pirke began to use terms associated with allergies: general and local, reduced and increased sensitivity related all of these states in one group of manifestations of reactivity – allergies.
The term «allergy» comes from two Greek words: «allos» – other, different and «ergon» – I do. Literal translation of the word means, thus, «making of another». In modern science the term «allergy» indicates an increased sensitivity in relation to a substance. Hence came the term «allergen», denoting a substance that can cause allergic reactions. Details are described in the allergy journal.
In 1902, two French researchers Risha and Portie, exploring the properties of the poison of actinium tentacles, faced with the unusual phenomena. When this poison was injected intravenously to the experimental dogs, no manifestations of poisoning they had. If repeated low doses of poison were injected to dogs, then cramps, vomiting and other severe reactions took place. These phenomena Risha called anaphylaxis: in Greek – defenselessness (allergy journal).
In 1905, Russian pathologist Sakharov and English pediatrist Smith described the phenomenon of guinea pigs anaphylaxis. 30 years prior this, scientists believed that hay fever and anaphylaxis have the same reasons for their occurrence. But this is an allergy.
Many years passed since that time, but the interest of scholars and practitioners to allergens, i.e. substances which cause allergic diseases, not decreasing, but increasing more and more.
Allergy journal informs you that allergens can be found in foods, chemicals, medicines, varnishes, paints, plant pollen, therapeutic sera.
Manifestations of allergy may vary. Allergy journal gives an example of the clinical practice of allergy. The child placed to the hospital with diphtheria. Serum injected to the patient to suppress diphtheria toxin. The child’s condition becomes better and he is ready to leave the hospital. But suddenly his temperature re-raises, the joints swell, increasing lymph glands in the skin blisters are formed. It lasts for a week, then for a short time, all the painful changes disappear and then arise again. These phenomena irrelevant to the diphtheria. This is so-called serum sickness, which is caused by the injection of the anti-diphtheria sera to the patient. This disease was first described by Pirke and his apprentice Shik, and is associated with allergy.
An example, given by allergy journal, shows that the reason for serum sickness is as follows. The point is that serum, obtained from blood of horses, which is tentatively immunizing against diphtheria toxin, used for the treatment of diphtheria. Serum thus contains substances, neutralizing diphtheria toxin. But it is alien to humans. The reaction to foreign matter has been the cause of the complications of our patient’s treatment. Such a painful reaction of serum injection to the body refers the phenomena of allergy.
A serum sickness takes place when the protein, ensnared to the alien organism, causes the state of hypersensitivity. The case is that under the action of this protein in the human body forms specific protein substances of same nature – the antibodies. Other allergens cause formation of antibodies of various types, but all of them have one important feature: the ability of connection with the allergen, which caused their formation. And this response is strictly specific, that is always in line with the same allergens.
Please apply to allergy journal to learn much more about allergy and ways of treatment!